Macam Domain Dan Kegunannya

Macam-Macam Domain Website

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Domain adalah kata yang di gunakan sebagai nama pada sebuah website. Dengan nama domain ini pengunjung akan dengan mudah mengingat website anda dan juga gampang untuk mengunjungi website anda dengan hanya mengetikkan nama wesbsite pada address bar. Misalnya www.namawbsiteanda.com.

Pada dunia marketing diinternet nama domain berperan sangat penting dalam mengembangkan brand atau merek. Oleh sebab itu nama domain di pilih secara hati hati agar konsumen lebih muda mengingat nama webite. Selain itu juga buat personal nama domain yang menggunakan nama anda sendiri bisa mendongkrak poplaritas di internet atau istilah gaulnya eksis di internet. Tergantung dari konten apa yang anda bawakan. Dan biasanya di gunakan pada jenis website Blog.

Cara Kerja Domain

Domain itu sebenarnya adalah sebuah alias atau nama samaran untuk menyamarkan alamat IP. Misalnya kita sedang mengunjungi sebuah situs, www.google.com maka sebenarnya kita akan di bawa kesebuah halaman web dengan alamat IP ini. Alamat IP ini merupakan kombinasi angka angak unik dan tiap website berbeda IP nya. Karena cukup sulit menghapal angka ini, maka di buatlah nama domain, biar mudah mengingatnya.

Untuk lebih jelas cara kerja domain saya quote artikel dari Blog Hostguin

Misalkan kita masukin domain “www.google.com”.

komputer akan mengecek apakah domain “www.google.com” tersedia/tersimpan di host local.

kalau tersedia maka komputer mengirim informasi IP address dari www.google.com ke browser. Lalu browser mengirim request dan mendownload content dari halaman www.google.com berdasarkan IP yang ditersimpan

Jika tidak maka komputer coba menghubungi DNS server yang telah kita set pada komputer (defaultnya menggunakan DNS server yang disediakan ISP). DNS server pun mengecek apakah informasi dari domain “www.google.com” tersimpan.

Kalau tersimpan maka DNS server akan mereply request ke komputer kita berupa alamat IP dari domain “www.google.com”. Lalu browser mengirim request dan mendownload content dari halaman www.google.com berdasarkan IP yang di terima

Kalau tidak tersedia di DNS server atau telah expired, lewat TTL(Time To Live) yang telah di tentukan oleh domain itu. DNS server coba meneruskan request yang kita minta ke root-server yang berjumlah 13.

Lalu pada root-server diproses domain “www.google.com” dari kanan ke kiri, pada paling kanan terdapat TLD “.com”. Lalu root server mengecek pada server TLD (setiap TLD mempunyai server masing2) apakah domain “google” tersedia di list tersebut

Jika tidak maka akan menampilkan dns error dan pada browser kadang tampil “www.google.com not found”

Kalau tersedia maka request akan di teruskan ke nameserver yang ada di domain. Lalu pada nameserver domain di cek apakah “www” pada record “google.com” tersedia.

Jika tidak maka akan menampilkan dns error dan pada browser kadang tampil “www.google.com not found”

Kalau iya maka nameserver memberikan informasi alamat IP dari “www.google.com” ke komputer kita melalui DNS server lalu dns server menyimpan informasi dari domain ini.

Setelah itu browser mengirim request dan mendownload content dari halaman www.google.com berdasarkan alamat IP yang diterima

Jenis Jenis Extensi Domain

Kalau anda sering browsing pasti sudah tidak asing lagi jika akhiran domain itu berbeda beda. Misal .com, .net, .co.id, .org, dll. Nah ada banyak sekali akhiran akhiran domain ini dan dari semua domain domain tersebut umumnya di bedakan jadi 2 jenis yaitu OTLD (Original Top-Level Domain) dan CCTLD (Country code top-level domain).

OTLD (Original Top-Level Domain)

Jenis domain yang paling sering di gunakan. Seperti .com, .net, dll. Kemudian peruntukan juga bermacam-macam, baik komersial ataupun organisasi

NameKepanjaganKeterangan
.com commercialNama ini biasa di gunakan untuk situs bisnis. Karena beberpa alasan nama ini di gunakan untuk berbagai jenis website hampir semua jenis sebagai nama domain utama. Sehingga sekarang di gunakan juga untuk website nonprofit, personal, dll.
.org organizationDi gunakan untuk keperluan organisasi.
.net networkDi peruntukan untuk web portal atau yang berhubungan dengan network (Jaringan)
.int international organizationsTLD ini terbatas pada organisasi, kantor, dan program-program yang didukung oleh perjanjian antara dua atau lebih negara.
.edu U.S. higher educationDomain untuk keperluan pendidikan seperti sekolah, atau univeritas.
.gov U.S. national and state government agenciesDoman resmi untuk situs pemerintahan di US
.mil U.S. militaryDoman untuk situs militer d US

CCTL (Country code top-level domain)

Yaitu jenis domain dengan kode negara tertentu. misalnya kalau di indonesia ada .web.id, .co.id, dan lainnya yang berakhiran .id. Mengunakan jenis domain ini menunjukan anda adalah website yang di peruntukan khusus untuk negara yang di tuju.

NameNegaraPenjelasanKeterangan
.ac Ascension IslandUmum juga di gunakan untuk web academik seperti universitas
.ad AndorraLocal trademark, trade name or citizenship required [5][6]
.ae United Arab Emirates
.af Afghanistan
.ag Antigua and BarbudaSecara tidak resmi digunakan oleh perusahaan Jerman (di mana AG adalah singkatan dari Aktiengesellschaft, bentuk badan hukum yang mirip dengan sebuah perusahaan dibatasi oleh saham)
.ai Anguilla
.al AlbaniaCitizenship no longer required
.am ArmeniaSecara tidak resmi di gunakan untuk situs radio AM
.an Netherlands AntillesLocal presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on October 10, 2010.
.ao Angola
.aq AntarcticaAntarctiqueDefined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica.
.ar Argentina
.as American Samoa
.at Austria
.au AustraliaRestrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and most have a minimum 2 year registration period.[7] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands.
.aw ArubaAruba, West IndiesRestricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens
.ax ÅlandRestricted to registered Åland companies, organisations and citizens
.az Azerbaijan
.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina
.bb Barbados
.bd Bangladesh
.be BelgiumAlso unofficially used in the canton of Bern, Switzerland
.bf Burkina Faso
.bg Bulgaria
.bh Bahrain
.bi Burundi
.bj Benin
.bm BermudaLocal corporate registration required
.bn Brunei
.bo Bolivia
.bq BonaireNot yet assigned as of 25 Nov 2014
.br BrazilRestricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[9]
.bs Bahamas
.bt Bhutan
.bv Bouvet IslandNot in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no).
.bw Botswana
.by BelarusByelorussiaalso unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany
.bz Belize
.ca CanadaSubject to Canadian Presence Requirements.
.cc Cocos (Keeling) IslandsAustralian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Also used as a free domain service to the public as cc.cc, cu.cc or cz.cc domain.
.cd Democratic Republic of the Congo
.cf Central African Republic
.cg Republic of the Congo
.ch  SwitzerlandConfoederatio Helvetica (Latin)
.ci Côte d’Ivoire
.ck Cook Islands
.cl Chile
.cm CameroonA local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name.
.cn People’s Republic of ChinaA local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.
.co ColombiaMarketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register.
.cr Costa Rica
.cs Czechoslovakia
 Serbia and MontenegroThis ccTLD was deleted around January 1995.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code CS was later assigned to Serbia and Montenegro but that country continued to use the ccTLD .yu instead until 2007 where recently split Serbia and Montenegro were assigned .rs and .me respectively
.cu Cuba
.cv Cape Verde
.cw CuraçaoCuraçao, West Indies
.cx Christmas Island
.cy Cyprus
.cz Czech Republic
.dd East GermanyDeutsche Demokratische RepublikWas proposed, but never implemented due to German re-unification.
.de GermanyDeutschlandGerman postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed.
.dj Djibouti
.dk Denmark
.dm Dominica
.do Dominican Republic
.dz Algeriaal-Jazair, also sometimes transliterated Djazair
.ec Ecuador
.ee EstoniaEestiAnyone can register but local administrative contact is required.
.eg Egypt
.eh Western SaharaSaguia el-Hamra.eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root.
.er EritreaInactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains.
.es SpainEspaña
.et Ethiopia
.eu European UnionRestricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use.
.fi FinlandRestricted to legal and natural persons residing in Finland.
.fj Fiji
.fk Falkland Islands
.fm Federated States of MicronesiaAlso unofficially used by FM radio stations or related business
.fo Faroe IslandsFøroyar
.fr FranceRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]
.ga Gabon
.gb United KingdomGreat BritainDeprecated.[12] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk.
.gd Grenada
.ge GeorgiaAvailable for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[13]
.gf French GuianaGuyane française
.gg GuernseyGuernsey/Guernesey
.gh Ghana
.gi Gibraltar
.gl GreenlandPreviously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use, to be implemented in 2014
.gm The Gambia
.gn GuineaA local contact is required
.gp GuadeloupeStill used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin
.gq Equatorial GuineaGuinée équatoriale
.gr Greece
.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
.gt Guatemala
.gu Guam
.gw Guinea-Bissau
.gy Guyana
.hk Hong KongSpecial administrative region of the People’s Republic of China.
.hm Heard Island and McDonald Islands
.hn Honduras
.hr CroatiaHrvatska
.ht Haiti
.hu Hungarycitizens of EU or entity established by virtue of law in the territory of EU
.id IndonesiaRestricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and will be open to general registration on August 17, 2014.[14]
.ie IrelandIn 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a “real and substantive” connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[16][17]
.il Israel
.im Isle of Man
.in IndiaUnder INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in).
.io British Indian Ocean TerritoryUsed unofficially by technology companies/startups/web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output which is useful for domain hacks.
.iq Iraq
.ir Iran
.is IcelandÍsland
.it ItalyRestricted to companies and individuals in the European Union.
.je Jersey
.jm Jamaica
.jo Jordan
.jp JapanRestricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan.
.ke Kenya
.kg Kyrgyzstan
.kh CambodiaKhmer, former Kâmpu(chea
.ki Kiribati
.km ComorosKomori
.kn Saint Kitts and Nevis
.kp Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
.kr Republic of Korea
.kw Kuwait
.ky Cayman IslandsRestricted to qualified Cayman entities[18]
.kz Kazakhstan
.la LaosCurrently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[19]
.lb LebanonRestricted to registration with a company in Lebanon
.lc Saint Lucia
.li LiechtensteinAlso used by Long Island
.lk Sri LankaLanka
.lr Liberia
.ls Lesotho
.lt Lithuania
.lu Luxembourg
.lv Latvia
.ly Libya
.ma MoroccoMarocAlso used as a free domain service to the public as cu.ma
.mc MonacoOnly for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco
.md MoldovaRestricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova.
.me Montenegro
.mg Madagascar
.mh Marshall Islands
.mk MacedoniaMakedonijaRestricted to registration with a company in Macedonia
.ml MaliAlso used as a free domain service to the public.
.mm Myanmar
.mn MongoliaThe second-level domains ‘.gov.mn’, ‘.org.mn’, and ‘.edu.mn’ are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information.
.mo MacauMacaoSpecial administrative region of the People’s Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[20]
.mp Northern Mariana IslandsMarianas Pacific
.mq Martinique
.mr Mauritania
.ms Montserrat
.mt Malta
.mu Mauritius
.mv Maldives
.mw Malawi
.mx Mexico
.my MalaysiaRestricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia
.mz Mozambique
.na Namibia
.nc New CaledoniaRestricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months.
.ne Niger
.nf Norfolk Island
.ng Nigeria
.ni Nicaragua
.nl NetherlandsNederlandFirst official country code TLD.[21]
.no NorwayBusinesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address.
.np   NepalAll .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses.
.nr NauruAlso used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.
.nu NiueCommonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages “nu” means “now”.
.nz New Zealand
.om OmanRegistrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact.
.pa Panama
.pe Peru
.pf French PolynesiaPolynésie françaiseWith Clipperton Island
.pg Papua New Guinea
.ph Philippines
.pk PakistanOperated by PKNIC since 1992
.pl Poland
.pm Saint-Pierre and MiquelonRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]
.pn Pitcairn Islands
.pr Puerto Rico
.ps State of Palestine[23]West Bank and Gaza Strip.
.pt Portugal
.pw PalauPelew
.py Paraguay
.qa Qatar
.re RéunionRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]
.ro Romania
.rs SerbiaRepublika Srbija
.ru RussiaSee also .su, still in use, and .??.
.rw Rwanda
.sa Saudi ArabiaRegistrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[25]
.sb Solomon IslandsBritish Solomon Islands
.sc Seychelles
.sd Sudan
.se Sweden
.sg Singapore
.sh Saint Helena
.si Slovenia
.sj Svalbard and
 Jan Mayen IslandsNot in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no).No
.sk SlovakiaRestricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens
.sl Sierra Leone
.sm San MarinoDomain name must be same as company name or trademark
.sn Senegal
.so SomaliaRelaunched on November 1, 2010
.sr Suriname
.ss South SudanRemoved from the root DNS zone in April 2013
.st São Tomé and Príncipe
.su Soviet UnionStill in use.
.sv El Salvador
.sx Sint Maarten
.sy Syria
.sz SwazilandRegistration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses.
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands.TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of ‘Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’ is TC.
.td ChadTchadChadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only.
.tf French Southern and Antarctic LandsTerres australes et antarctiques françaisesSeldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]
.tg Togo
.th Thailand
.tj Tajikistan
.tk TokelauAlso used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk (‘te koop’) means ‘for sale’ in Dutch.
.tl East TimorTimor-LesteOld code .tp is still in use.
.tm Turkmenistan
.tn Tunisia
.to TongaOften used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins
.tp East TimorTimor PortuguêsISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned but .tp is still in use.
.tr Turkey.nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus
.tt Trinidad and Tobago
.tv TuvaluUsed as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company.
.tw TaiwanRegistration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA’s official position is that “TW” is “designated for use to represent “Taiwan, Republic of China.”[27]
.tz TanzaniaMust have a presence in Tanzania
.ua Ukraine???????/UkrainaUkrainian trademark required
.ug Uganda
.uk United KingdomThe ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code for the UK. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[12]
.us United States of AmericaFormerly commonly used by US State and local governments, see also .gov TLD
.uy Uruguay2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[28]
.uz Uzbekistan
.va  Vatican CityVaticanoLimited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State)
.vc Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
.ve Venezuela
.vg British Virgin Islands
.vi United States Virgin Islands
.vn Vietnam
.vu Vanuatu
.wf Wallis and FutunaRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]
.ws SamoaWestern Samoa (former name)Marketed to be used in general WebSites
.ye Yemen
.yt MayotteRestricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]
.yu SFR Yugoslavia
 FR YugoslaviaYugoslavia broke-up in 1991 and Serbia and Montenegro joined in a  State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 1992. .cs was assigned for the State union but the country kept the use of .yu until 2006 when the two nations split.
.za South AfricaZuid-Afrika
.zm Zambia
.zr ZaireZaire renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.
.zr was removed in 2001
.zw Zimbabwe

Semua data data domain saya ambil dari situs wiki. Silakan kunjungi halamannya untuk info lebih lanjut disini.

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Updated: 02/19/2015 — 9:32 PM

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